Java死锁范例以及如何分析死锁

死锁是两个甚至多个线程被永久阻塞时的一种运行局面,这种局面的生成伴随着至少两个线程和两个或者多个资源。在这里我已写好一个简单的程序,它将会引起死锁方案然后我们就会明白如何分析它。

Java死锁范例

ThreadDeadlock.java

public class ThreadDeadlock {
	
	public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
		Object obj1 = new Object();
		Object obj2 = new Object();
		Object obj3 = new Object();

		Thread t1 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj1, obj2), "t1");
		Thread t2 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj2, obj3), "t2");
		Thread t3 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj3, obj1), "t3");

		t1.start();
		Thread.sleep(5000);
		t2.start();
		Thread.sleep(5000);
		t3.start();

	}

}

class SyncThread implements Runnable {
	private Object obj1;
	private Object obj2;

	public SyncThread(Object o1, Object o2) {
		this.obj1 = o1;
		this.obj2 = o2;
	}

	@Override
	public void run() {
		String name = Thread.currentThread().getName();
		System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj1);
		synchronized (obj1) {
			System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj1);
			work();
			System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj2);
			synchronized (obj2) {
				System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj2);
				work();
			}
			System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj2);
		}
		System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj1);
		System.out.println(name + " finished execution.");
	}

	private void work() {
		try {
			Thread.sleep(30000);
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
	
}


在上面的程序中同步线程正完成Runnable的接口,它工作的是两个对象,这两个对象向对方寻求死锁而且都在使用同步阻塞。

在主函数中,我使用了三个为同步线程运行的线程,而且在其中每个线程中都有一个可共享的资源。

这些线程以向第一个对象获取封锁这种方式运行。但是当它试着像第二个对象获取封锁时,它就会进入等待状态,因为它已经被另一个线程封锁住了。这样,在线程引起死锁的过程中,就形成了一个依赖于资源的循环。

当我执行上面的程序时,就产生了输出,但是程序却因为死锁无法停止。

t1 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@2e92b791
t1 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@2e92b791
t2 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@12d687a2
t2 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@12d687a2
t3 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@3b1c2f38
t3 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@3b1c2f38
t1 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@12d687a2
t2 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@3b1c2f38
t3 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@2e92b791

在此我们可以清楚地在输出结果中辨认出死锁局面,但是在我们实际生活所用的应用中,发现死锁并将它排除是非常难的。

分析死锁

为了分析一个死锁,这里我使用了VisualVM收集资料,当然你也可以使用jstack来看该信息

以下就是上述程序的线程转存。

2012-12-27 19:08:34
Full thread dump Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (23.5-b02 mixed mode):
 
"Attach Listener" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2814000 nid=0x4007 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"DestroyJavaVM"prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2801000 nid=0x1703 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"t3"prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a204b000 nid=0x4d07 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d971000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
 
"t2"prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1073000 nid=0x4207 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d209000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
 
"t1"prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1072000 nid=0x5503 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d86e000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
 
"Service Thread" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1038000 nid=0x5303 runnable [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"C2 CompilerThread1" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1037000 nid=0x5203 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"C2 CompilerThread0" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1016000 nid=0x5103 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"Signal Dispatcher" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4003000 nid=0x5003 runnable [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
 
"Finalizer"daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4800000 nid=0x3f03 in Object.wait() [0x000000015d0c0000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: WAITING (on object monitor)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method)
    - waiting on <0x000000013de75798> (a java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue$Lock)
    at java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue.remove(ReferenceQueue.java:135)
    - locked <0x000000013de75798> (a java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue$Lock)
    at java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue.remove(ReferenceQueue.java:151)
    at java.lang.ref.Finalizer$FinalizerThread.run(Finalizer.java:177)
 
"Reference Handler" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4002000 nid=0x3e03 in Object.wait() [0x000000015cfbd000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: WAITING (on object monitor)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method)
    - waiting on <0x000000013de75320> (a java.lang.ref.Reference$Lock)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Object.java:503)
    at java.lang.ref.Reference$ReferenceHandler.run(Reference.java:133)
    - locked <0x000000013de75320> (a java.lang.ref.Reference$Lock)
 
"VM Thread" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2049800 nid=0x3d03 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#0 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a300d800 nid=0x3503 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#1 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2001800 nid=0x3603 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#2 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2003800 nid=0x3703 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#3 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2004000 nid=0x3803 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#4 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2005000 nid=0x3903 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#5 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2005800 nid=0x3a03 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#6 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2006000 nid=0x3b03 runnable 
 
"GC task thread#7 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2006800 nid=0x3c03 runnable 
 
"VM Periodic Task Thread" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1015000 nid=0x5403 waiting on condition 
 
JNI global references: 114
 
Found one Java-level deadlock:
=============================
"t3":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1074b08 (object 0x000000013df2f658, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t1"
"t1":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1010f08 (object 0x000000013df2f668, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t2"
"t2":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1012360 (object 0x000000013df2f678, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t3"
 
Java stack information for the threads listed above:
===================================================
"t3":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
"t1":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
"t2":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
 
Found 1 deadlock.

这三个线程转存的输出清楚地说明了死锁环境和线程,以及包含死锁环境的资源。

为了分析死锁,我们需要关注死锁状态的线程,然后资源再等待去封锁,每一个资源都有一个独特的ID,有了这个ID我们就能发现是哪一个进程已经封锁住对象。举个例子,线程“t3”正在等待封锁0x000000013df2f658,但是它已经被线程“t1”封锁住了。

当我们分析死锁环境的时候,如果发现线程正在引起死锁,这是我们就要改变代码来避免死锁的产生。

visualvm的截图如下:



jstack的截图如下:



避免死锁

有很多方针可供我们使用来避免死锁的局面。

  • 避免嵌套封锁这是死锁最主要的原因的,如果你已经有一个资源了就要避免封锁另一个资源。如果你运行时只有一个对象封锁,那是几乎不可能出现一个死锁局面的。例如,这里是另一个运行中没有嵌套封锁的run()方法,而且程序运行没有死锁局面,运行得很成功。
  • public void run() {
        String name = Thread.currentThread().getName();
        System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj1);
        synchronized(obj1) {
            System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj1);
            work();
        }
        System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj1);
        System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj2);
        synchronized(obj2) {
            System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj2);
            work();
        }
        System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj2);
     
        System.out.println(name + " finished execution.");
    }

  • 只对有请求的进行封锁你应当只想你要运行的资源获取封锁,比如在上述程序中我在封锁的完全的对象资源。但是如果我们只对它所属领域中的一个感兴趣,那我们应当封锁住那个特殊的领域而并非完全的对象。
  • 避免无限期的等待如果两个线程正在等待对象结束,无限期的使用线程加入,如果你的线程必须要等待另一个线程的结束,若是等待进程的结束加入最好准备最长时间。(设置线程超时时间之 Callable接口和Future接口
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